The retina is the light-sensitive layer of tissue located at the back of your eyeball. It most often appears red or orange due to the many blood vessels located behind it.
The retina itself is made up of two parts: the macula and the peripheral retina. The macula, located in the center of your retina, is responsible for processing what you’re looking at. The peripheral retina fills in the parts of your vision toward the edges of your visual field. This is also known as peripheral vision.
The retina contains numerous types of cells. Photoreceptors are the cells in your retina that react to light.
Rods are a type of photoreceptor that help you see in low light, such as in a dim room or at night. Cones are responsible for processing color — there are three types: blue, green, and red. Together, they work to provide a clear image of what you’re seeing.MORE INFORMATION
Located at the back of your eye, the retina is located opposite the lens and pupil. More specifically, the retina is located in the posterior segment of the eye, along with the choroid, optic nerve, and vitreous humor.
The retina captures light that enters your eye and converts it into the images you see. It does this via the lens — light passes through the lens, focusing light on the retina. Photoreceptors, which are the cells in your retina that react to light, convert light into an electrical signal.Retinal Diseases
While retinal diseases may vary, almost all of them can cause damage to your eye and impact your eyesight. Some common diseases include the following.
Diabetic Retinopathy – If you have diabetes, you may be more susceptible to retinal damage. The tiny blood vessels behind the eye begin to deteriorate, leaking fluid into and under the retina. This causes swelling, which may blur and distort your vision.
Macular Degeneration – With macular degeneration, the center of the retina deteriorates, leading to vision loss. An age-related condition, macular degeneration commonly affects individuals aged 55 and older. Symptoms include blurred central vision or a blind spot in the center field.
Posterior Vitreous Detachment (PVD – Flashes & Floaters) – Most common in adults over the age of 60, a detachment of the vitreous gel from the retina.
Retinal Tears (Flashes & Floaters) – Retinal tears occur when the vitreous shrinks and tugs on the retina, leading to a break in the tissue. Common indicators of a retinal tear include floaters or flashing lights.
Retinal Detachment – Retinal detachment may occur when too much fluid builds up behind the retina, leading to the retina separating from the underlying tissue. Other risk factors include previous retinal detachment in the other eye, other eye disorders, eye injury, or previous cataract surgery.
Cystoid Macular Edema – Fluid filled cysts buildup in the macula causing blurry vision.
Macular Pucker – Macular pucker is a condition in which scar tissue forms on the macula. A macular pucker can cause blurry or distorted vision and may make it difficult to read or drive.
Macular Hole – A macular hole is a small hole that opens in the center of the retina, in the macula. This can happen via abnormal traction between the retina and the vitreous or can happen following an eye injury.
Retinal Vein Occlusion – A blockage in either the main vein of the retina (central retinal vein occlusion or CRVO) or one or more of the smaller veins (a branch retinal vein occlusion or BRVO).
Retinal Artery Occlusion – A blockage in one or more of the arteries of your retina.
Central Serous Chorioretinopathy – An eye condition where there is fluid buildup behind the retina.
Intravitreal Injection – An intravitreal injection is a shot used to administer medicine to the eye.